hard

  基本词汇  
[hɑːd]     [hɑːrd]    
  • adj.硬的;困难的;棘手的;坚强的;残酷的;用力的;液态的;严寒的;确凿的
  • adv.努力地;强烈地;严重地;坚定地
harder hardest
new

hard是什么意思,词典释义与在线翻译:

详尽释义

adj.(形容词)
  1. 坚固的
  2. 猛烈的,烈性的
  3. 冷酷无情的,硬心肠的,苛刻的
  4. 硬的,坚硬的
  5. (人)结实的
  6. 辛苦的,艰难的,困难的,艰苦的,费力的,困苦的,耗费体力的
  7. 难懂的,难做的,难以回答的
adv.(副词)
  1. 猛烈地,猛力地
  2. 努力地,艰难地,费力地,困难地
  3. 接近地
  4. 重重地,沉重地
  5. 立即地
  6. 彻底认真地
  7. 大量地
  8. 长时间地
n.(名词)
  1. 硬海滩
  2. 登陆处
  3. 硬质
  4. 强迫苦役
v.(动词)
  1. (使)艰难,变艰辛

双解释义

adj.(形容词)
  1. 硬的,坚实的,坚固的 not soft or yielding to the touch or easily cut; solid; firm
  2. 难做的,难懂的,难答的,困难的 difficult to do or understand or answer; not easy
  3. [A]辛苦的,努力的 showing much effort; energetic
  4. (天气)凛冽的 (of the weather) severe
  5. 硬心肠的,冷酷无情的,严厉的 unfeeling; unsympathetic; harsh
adv.(副词)
  1. 努力地 with great effort, energy or concentration; strenuously; intently
  2. 艰难地 with difficulty; with a struggle
  3. 严重地,猛烈地 severely; heavily

行业释义

提示:各行业词典APP中含有本词条的独家正版内容,在手机上可看到更多释义内容。
hard : 硬的, 坚固 ...
在 《军事术语英语词典》 中查看更多...
hard : 坚固的, 结 ...
在 《会展英语词典》 中查看更多...
hard : 硬的, 坚固 ...
在 《金融术语英语词典 》 中查看更多...

英英释义

Adjective:
  1. not easy; requiring great physical or mental effort to accomplish or comprehend or endure;

    "a difficult task"
    "nesting places on the cliffs are difficult of access"
    "difficult times"
    "why is it so hard for you to keep a secret?"

  2. dispassionate;

    "took a hard look"
    "a hard bargainer"

  3. resisting weight or pressure

  4. very strong or vigorous;

    "strong winds"
    "a hard left to the chin"
    "a knockout punch"
    "a severe blow"

  5. characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort;

    "worked their arduous way up the mining valley"
    "a grueling campaign"
    "hard labor"
    "heavy work"
    "heavy going"
    "spent many laborious hours on the project"
    "set a punishing pace"

  6. produced without vibration of the vocal cords;

    "unvoiced consonants such as `p' and `k' and `s'"

  7. (of light) transmitted directly from a pointed light source

  8. (of speech sounds); produced with the back of the tongue raised toward or touching the velum;

    "Russian distinguished between hard consonants and palatalized or soft consonants"

  9. given to excessive indulgence of bodily appetites especially for intoxicating liquors;

    "a hard drinker"

  10. being distilled rather than fermented; having a high alcoholic content;

    "hard liquor"

  11. unfortunate or hard to bear;

    "had hard luck"
    "a tough break"

  12. dried out;

    "hard dry rolls left over from the day before"

Adverb:
  1. with effort or force or vigor;

    "the team played hard"
    "worked hard all day"
    "pressed hard on the lever"
    "hit the ball hard"
    "slammed the door hard"

  2. with firmness;

    "held hard to the railing"

  3. earnestly or intently;

    "thought hard about it"
    "stared hard at the accused"

  4. causing great damage or hardship;

    "industries hit hard by the depression"
    "she was severely affected by the bank's failure"

  5. slowly and with difficulty;

    "prejudices die hard"

  6. indulging excessively;

    "he drank heavily"

  7. into a solid condition;

    "concrete that sets hard within a few hours"

  8. very near or close in space or time;

    "it stands hard by the railroad tracks"
    "they were hard on his heels"
    "a strike followed hard upon the plant's opening"

  9. with pain or distress or bitterness;

    "he took the rejection very hard"

  10. to the full extent possible; all the way;

    "hard alee"
    "the ship went hard astern"
    "swung the wheel hard left"

hard的用法和样例:

例句

用作形容词 (adj.)
  1. The ground is as hard as stone after the long drought.
    长期干旱之后,土地硬得就像石头一样。
  2. It's very hard to maintain a relationship.
    要维持一段关系,是很困难的。
  3. It's very hard on parents when their children are rebellious.
    对父母来说,孩子叛逆是个很棘手的问题。
  4. He likes to pretend he is hard, but he is really soft underneath.
    他喜欢故作坚强,但是他内心真的很脆弱。
  5. He gave the door a hard shove and it opened.
    他猛地一推门,门开了。
  6. I don't want to go out in such hard weather.
    我不想在这么冷的天气里出门。
  7. We need some hard evidence to support our claim.
    我们需要一些确凿的证据来支持我们的主张。
用作副词 (adv.)
  1. Most importantly, you must work hard to catch up.
    最为重要的是,你必须努力学习,迎头赶上。
  2. The senator was hard opposed by her rivals on the issue of social welfare.
    那名参议员在社会福利问题上遭到对手强烈的反对。
  3. Small businesses in particular were hit hard by the recession.
    尤其是一些小企业在经济萧条中遭受了严重的打击。
  4. You need to keep moving ahead hard and confidently.
    你要坚定而充满信心地走下去。

常见句型

用作形容词 (adj.)
用作定语 ~+ n.
  1. Make a hard knot.
    打一个结实的结。
  2. Granite is a very hard stone.
    花岗岩是一种很坚硬的石头。
  3. The jar contained assorted hard candies.
    这罐子里装有什锦硬糖。
  4. Can linguistics ever be a hard science like physics?
    语言学是否能成为像物理学那样实在的科学?
  5. The teacher asked a hard question.
    老师问了一个很难回答的问题。
  6. That's hard work.
    那是一项辛苦的工作。
  7. This behaviour is not conducive to hard work.
    这种举止行为不可能认真勤奋地工作。
  8. They have had a hard time bringing up ten children.
    他们把10个孩子拉扯大真不容易。
  9. This project is a hard task.
    这个工程是一项艰巨的任务。
  10. Hard conditions turned her hair grey.
    艰苦的环境使她的头发变白了。
  11. The village was quiet. Most farmers were fast asleep after a day's hard work.
    村子里静悄悄的。在一天的辛勤劳动之后,大多数农民都已经熟睡了。
  12. Only hard work gives good results.
    努力工作才能有好的结果。
  13. It takes hard work to get ahead in business.
    要想在商业上获得成功需要努力工作。
  14. Her husband is a hard drinker.
    她丈夫酗酒。
  15. The hard rain flattened the tomato plants.
    暴雨把西红柿秧打倒伏了。
  16. This has been a hard winter.
    这是一个严寒的冬天。
  17. A hard illness kept him in bed for a whole year.
    重病使他整整一年卧床不起。
  18. A hard blow knocked the boxer down.
    对方猛烈的一拳将这个拳击手击倒在地。
  19. We dealt hard blows at the enemy.
    我们狠狠地打击了敌人。
  20. The lawyers exchanged hard words.
    律师们唇枪舌剑,互不相让。
  21. We know that this man is a hard bargainer.
    我们听说此人善于讨价还价。
  22. He gave me a hard, bleak look.
    他冷冷地盯了我一眼。
  23. John's father is a man with a hard heart.
    约翰的父亲是个铁石心肠的人。
  24. Good sports records come from hard training.
    良好的运动成绩是靠严格训练取得的。
  25. He has a hard father.
    他有一个严厉的父亲。
  26. He had a hard look on his face.
    他表情严峻。
  27. Hard feelings existed between the neighbours.
    那些邻居们彼此抱有敌意。
n. +~
  1. That's a hill hard to climb.
    那是座难爬的山。
用作表语 S+be+~
  1. This bit of wood feels hard.
    这块木头摸起来很硬。
  2. The rock here was hard as flint.
    这里的岩石像燧石一样坚硬。
  3. The soft, warm body became hard and cold.
    那温暖柔软的身体变得又硬又冷。
  4. The exam was extremely hard.
    这次考试非常难。
  5. Though nurses' work is very hard,I like it very much.
    虽然护士工作很苦,我还是很喜欢它。
  6. When times are hard, incidents of theft and cheating usually go up.
    当时世艰难时,偷窃和欺骗事件通常便会增多。
  7. Unloading the boxes is hard, inspecting them is difficult.
    把盒子卸下来是费劲的,检查它们则是困难的。
S+be+~+ prep .-phrase
  1. This job will be hard for me.
    这工作对我来说将会是很困难的。
  2. The stone is hard to the touch.
    这石头很硬。
  3. He is hard and unfeeling towards his children.
    他对自己的孩子严厉无情。
  4. Life is really hard with Jim.
    吉姆的日子实在很难。
S+be+~+(for sb) to- v
  1. The poem is hard to understand.
    这首诗难懂。
  2. Old habits are hard to break.
    积习难改。
  3. This seems hard to explain.
    这个问题好像难以说清楚。
  4. She says her husband is hard to please.
    她说她的丈夫是难以取悦的。
  5. She is hard to deal with.
    对付她是很难的。
  6. The ground is too hard to dig.
    地硬得没法挖。
  7. The task is too hard for them to finish ahead of time.
    任务太艰巨,他们提前完成不了。
S+be+~+that-clause
  1. This candy is so hard that no one can chew it.
    这种糖太硬,没人嚼得动。
  2. The book is so hard that I cannot read it at all.
    这本书太难了,我一点儿也读不懂。
It is/was+~+(for sb) to- v
  1. It's hard to know what he's really thinking.
    很难知道他到底在想什么。
  2. It's hard to say what is the best course of action.
    很难说什么是最好的行动方针。
  3. It is hard to say whether he will win the election .
    他能否在选举中获胜,这很难说。
  4. Without experience it is hard to avoid mistakes.
    没有经验,难免要犯错误。
  5. It's hard for an old man to change his lifestyle.
    老年人难以改变其生活方式。
用作宾语补足语 S+V+O+~
  1. Regular physical exercises soon made the boys hard.
    经常的运动使那些男孩的身体很快变结实了。
  2. She found it hard to make up her mind.
    她发现难以下决心。
用作副词 (adv.)
用作状语
  1. They tried hard to succeed.
    他们尽力设法取得成功。
  2. From this day forward,I will study hard.
    从今以后我要刻苦学习。
  3. Until recently he worked very hard on his mysterious experiments.
    最近他一直努力工作进行他神秘的实验。
  4. She decided to work harder so as to catch up with the others.
    她决心更加努力地学习好赶上别人。
  5. Tom followed hard behind me.
    汤姆紧跟在我身后。
  6. The policeman ran the thief hard and caught him at last.
    警察紧追小偷,最后把他抓住了。
  7. I thought long and hard about the problem.
    关于那个问题我费力地想了很长时间。
  8. With my parents' hard earned money,I finished my school education.
    靠着父母亲辛辛苦苦赚来的钱,我完成了学业。
  9. It has been freezing hard since last week.
    上星期以来天气一直酷寒。
  10. As the wind blew harder, the waves grew rougher.
    风越刮越大,海浪也越来越汹涌。
  11. Please don't boil eggs hard.
    请别把鸡蛋煮老了。

常用短语

用作形容词 (adj.)
as hard as a brick〔rock, stone〕
  1. 极硬的,硬如 very hard or firm

    The loaf is as hard as a brick. 这块面包坚硬得像块砖头。

    The biscuits she baked turned out to be as hard as rock. 她烤的饼干结果像石头一样硬。

be hard on
  1. 严格对待或批评某人 treat or criticize sb severely

    Don't be too hard on her—she's very young. 别对她太严了——她还小呢。

    She's new at the job and bound to make a few mistakes, so don't be too hard on her. 她对这工作不熟悉,必定会出差错,因此别对她过分严厉。

    She begged him not to be so hard on the child. 她要求他不要对孩子那么严厉。

  2. 对某人不公平 be unfair to sb

    I know we can't make exceptions to our rules, but it's a bit hard on those who did nothing wrong. 我知道我们的规定不容许有例外,但对没做任何错事的人来说有点不公平。

    It's hard on Jimmy, having to work when the rest of us are enjoying ourselves. 对吉米太不公平,我们其他人玩的时候他还不得不工作。

hard and fast
  1. (规则等)不能变通的,不容更改的 (of rules, etc.) that cannot be altered to fit special cases; inflexible

    This distinction isn't hard and fast. 这样的分类并非是一成不变的。

    There are no hard and fast rules to be followed here. 这里没有严格的、固定不变的规则要遵守。

    There are no hard and fast rules about the use of hyphens in English. 对于连字符号的使用,英语中没有严格的限制。

    We must make it a hard and fast rule not to allow any parent to enter a classroom without first speaking to the headmaster. 我们一定要作出严格的规定,没有校长的许可,家长不得进入教室。

    He stuck hard and fast to his principles. 他刻板地坚持自己的原则。

hard going
  1. 难懂的,难欣赏的,令人厌烦的 difficult to understand or enjoy; boring

    I'm finding this book very hard going. 我觉得这本书十分难懂。

hard lines〔luck〕 (on sb)
  1. 〈口〉(用作叹词或当提及某人的不幸时用以表示同情) used as an exclamation or a sympathetic comment on sb's misfortune

    You failed your driving test,I hear—hard lines! 听说你驾驶执照考试没及格——真不走运!

    It's hard luck on those who were beaten in the first round of the competition. 那些在第一轮比赛中就遭到失败的人真是倒霉。

hard of hearing
  1. 听觉不灵的 rather deaf

    It's difficult to talk to her, because she is hard of hearing. 跟她说话很难,因为她听觉不灵。

    Can scientists help the hard of hearing to hear better? 科学家能帮助重听者听得更清楚一点吗?

    We're a little hard of hearing out here. 我们这里消息很不灵通。

hard to take
  1. 难以接受 difficult to accept without annoyance, grief or bitterness

    I find his attitude very hard to take. 我觉得他的态度实在难以接受。

take a hard line (on〔over〕)
  1. 奉行强硬路线,持强硬态度 remain fixed and uncompromising in one's attitude, policy, etc.

    Some of the employees have produced bad work, the management will have to take a hard line with them in future. 有些雇员工作得不好,管理部门势必采取硬性措施。

too much like hard work
  1. 太费劲,太累人 too demanding or wearisome to undertake

    I don't want to go for a walk on such a hot day—it's too much like hard work for me. 我不想在这样的大热天里去散步——我简直吃不消。

用作副词 (adv.)
be hard put (to it) to
  1. 难以 find it difficult to do sth

    He was hard put to it to explain her disappearance. 他难以说明她为什么不见了。

    We are hard put to find a replacement for our assistant. 我们很难找到一个人来代替我们的助手。

be hard up for
  1. 缺少某事物,需要某事物 have too few of sth; need sth

    He's hard up for ideas. 他没有主意 。

    The editor of the magazine was hard up for material. 那家杂志的编辑缺少材料。

    I'm hard up for clothes, but I have a lot of books. 我缺少衣服,但是我有很多书。

hard by
  1. 在附近,紧挨着 near by

    There was an inn hard by. 附近有个客栈。

    He stood hard by me. 他站在我的旁边。

hard done by
  1. 受到不当或不公正对待 unfairly treated

    She feels rather hard done by. 她觉得有点委屈。

    I felt very hard done by when I got less money than anybody else, after I had worked twice as hard. 我卖的力气比别人多一倍,但我得到的钱比谁都少,实在不公平。

hard on
  1. 紧接着 very soon after

    His death followed hard on hers. 他在她死后不久也死了。

hard on sb's heels
  1. 紧跟某人 closely following sb

    He ran ahead, with the others hard on his heels. 他在前头跑,其他人紧随其后。

hit...hard
  1. 对某人〔某物〕产生不利影响 affect sb/sth badly hit sb/sth hard

    The farmers were hard hit by the bad weather.恶劣的天气使农民受到沉重打击。

    Television has hit the cinema industry very hard.电视的出现沉重地打击了电影业。

take...hard
  1. 因某事而极度悲伤或烦恼 be very grieved or upset by sth take sth hard

    When their child died they took it very hard.孩子死的时候他们痛苦不堪。

    He failed his examination, and he's taking it very hard.他考试不及格,因此非常难受。

词汇搭配

用作形容词 (adj.)
~+名词 ~+动词不定式 ~+介词

经典引文

  • The infantry: hard, bare feet rhythmically kicking up the dust.

    出自:E. Waugh
  • English muffins which had been toasted in the morning and were as hard as cement.

    出自:E. Hardwick

hard的详细讲解:

词语用法

  1. hard一般表示“困难的”。

    This is a hard question to answer.
    这是个难题,不好回答。

  2. hardhard of hearing(有些聋的)中有特殊含义“艰难的”,注意不适合用在别处;
  3. hard后可接of和表示动作的名词。

    This food is hard of digestion.
    这个食物很难消化。

  4. 注意hard一般不会和impossible连用,可选择将difficult同impossible连用。

    It is hard, if not impossible.
    这个表达是错误的。

  5. 短语a hard time表示一个人的“困难时期”,而hard times则表示“不景气”。
adj.(形容词)
  1. hard作“困难的”解时,指要消耗很大的体力去做某事,有时也指精神上的困难。
  2. hard还可表示“费力的,费神的,艰难的” “持强硬态度的,不妥协的,不让步的” “有力的,猛烈的,严厉的” “困苦的,难以忍受的” “(声音)刺耳的,(颜色)刺目的” “酒精含量高的”等。
  3. hard在句中可用作定语或表语,其后可跟for〔to, with〕等介词短语、动词不定式、that从句。
  4. hard是对主语具有评价意义的形容词,说明主语在哪方面“难”。接动词不定式时,句子的主语不是该不定式的主语,而是该不定式的宾语。
adv.(副词)
  1. hard修饰动态动词,位于实义动词之后。

词义辨析

adj.(形容词)
hard at, hard on
这两个短语都是“动词+介词(短语)”型短语,在句中作表语。其区别主要在意思上:hard at意为“努力工作〔学习〕”,其后多接work, study, task等名词; 而hard on意为“严格对待…”,其后多接表示人的名词,间或也可接表示事物的名词。
hard, difficult
这两个词均可表示“困难的”,其区别是:
difficult是较正式的用词,主要指智力方面的困难,多意味着“复杂”“难以处理”“难以了解”“需要智慧或技巧”; hard是口语用词,主要是指体力方面的困难,多意味着“不易做”。试比较:
  • Passing the examination is a difficult task.
  • 通过这次考试并不容易。
  • The making of a road is a hard job.
  • 筑路是项艰苦的工作。
hard, firm, solid
这三个词都可表示“坚硬的”“坚定的”。其区别是:
firm指组织与构造是坚韧的,不容易因拉伸、弯曲而变形,暗示稳定或坚固; hard指厚实或坚硬,能抵抗压力,几乎不能压缩、拉伸或挖掘或极度执著,有顽固之意; solid指结构很坚固,密度一致,有很强的稳定性,能抵抗任何压力。例如:
I took a firm hold on the rope.我牢牢地抓住了绳子。
The ground was too hard to dig.这块地太硬没法挖。
The buildings are surrounded with solid walls.这座建筑周围用坚硬的墙围着。
hard up, lower classes, poor
这三个词(组)都用于描写一些人,这些人不能获得足够的钱物以保证像样的生活水平。其区别是:
poor是其中最广义的词,可指长期或临时的物质或精神的匮乏; hard up是poor的口头用语,常指短期物质的匮乏,例如发工资前借钱买午餐或庄稼歉收时的农民,都可用hard up; lower classes习惯上用于指在任何社会中社会地位和经济地位最低的一些人,那些所谓lower classes的人通常是穷的,然而如今该词常用作带贬义的势利语,指那些胸无大志,缺少教养的人,这些人经济上也许贫也许富。例如:
If prices continue to advance, poor people will find it hard to live.如果物价继续上涨,穷人的日子就更不好过了。
I am hard up for money this month.我这个月手头拮据。
He is a member of lower classes.他是下层社会的一员。
adv.(副词)
hard, hardly
1.hard可作形容词或副词; 而hardly只能用作副词。
2.hard意指“坚硬”“痛苦的”“结实的”“艰难地”“困苦地”“费力地”“困难地”; 而hardly是“几乎不”“几乎没有”的意思。
difficult hard
这两个形容词均有“困难”之意。
  • difficult:difficult比hard较为正式,侧重需要特别的能力、智力、判断力、技巧或勇气才能克服障碍。也可指深奥或抽象的难题。
  • hard:hard含义广,通俗用词,与easy相对,泛指任何难理解,不好处理或不易做的事。

常见错误

adj.(形容词)
  1. 我觉得这个问题很难解决。

    I am hard to solve this problem.

    I find this problem hard to solve.

    hard作“困难”解时,不能用于人称结构。

错句举例与错句分析
  • 错句:it is hard work for me to make clear for you.

    纠正:it is hard for me to make clear for you.

    翻译:让我给你讲明白是件很难的事情。

    分析:常见格式为it is hard to do sth。

词源解说

  • ☆ 直接源自古英语的haerd,意为固体的,结实的,不软的;最初源自原始日耳曼语的kharthus。

hard的相关资料:

正版词典

hard : 硬的,坚硬 ...
在 《外研社英语词典》 中查看更多...

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缩略词

hard的相关缩略词,共有9

互动百科

  • hard:hard adj. 硬的, 坚固的, (问题, 工作等)困难的, 艰苦的, 猛烈的, 确实的adv. 努力地, 辛苦地, 坚硬地, 牢固地, 接近地, 猛烈地习惯用语hard as nails 铁石心…

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