- 硬的,坚实的,坚固的 not soft or yielding to the touch or easily cut; solid; firm
- 难做的,难懂的,难答的,困难的 difficult to do or understand or answer; not easy
- [A]辛苦的,努力的 showing much effort; energetic
- (天气)凛冽的 (of the weather) severe
- 硬心肠的,冷酷无情的,严厉的 unfeeling; unsympathetic; harsh
- 努力地 with great effort, energy or concentration; strenuously; intently
- 艰难地 with difficulty; with a struggle
- 严重地,猛烈地 severely; heavily
- not easy; requiring great physical or mental effort to accomplish or comprehend or endure;
"a difficult task"
"nesting places on the cliffs are difficult of access"
"why is it so hard for you to keep a secret?"
"took a hard look"
"a hard bargainer"
- resisting weight or pressure
- very strong or vigorous;
"a hard left to the chin"
"a knockout punch"
"a severe blow"
- characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort;
"worked their arduous way up the mining valley"
"a grueling campaign"
"spent many laborious hours on the project"
"set a punishing pace"
- produced without vibration of the vocal cords;
"unvoiced consonants such as `p' and `k' and `s'"
- (of light) transmitted directly from a pointed light source
- (of speech sounds); produced with the back of the tongue raised toward or touching the velum;
"Russian distinguished between hard consonants and palatalized or soft consonants"
- given to excessive indulgence of bodily appetites especially for intoxicating liquors;
"a hard drinker"
- being distilled rather than fermented; having a high alcoholic content;
- unfortunate or hard to bear;
"had hard luck"
"a tough break"
- dried out;
"hard dry rolls left over from the day before"
- with effort or force or vigor;
"the team played hard"
"worked hard all day"
"pressed hard on the lever"
"hit the ball hard"
"slammed the door hard"
- with firmness;
"held hard to the railing"
- earnestly or intently;
"thought hard about it"
"stared hard at the accused"
- causing great damage or hardship;
"industries hit hard by the depression"
"she was severely affected by the bank's failure"
- slowly and with difficulty;
"prejudices die hard"
- indulging excessively;
"he drank heavily"
- into a solid condition;
"concrete that sets hard within a few hours"
- very near or close in space or time;
"it stands hard by the railroad tracks"
"they were hard on his heels"
"a strike followed hard upon the plant's opening"
- with pain or distress or bitterness;
"he took the rejection very hard"
- to the full extent possible; all the way;
"the ship went hard astern"
"swung the wheel hard left"
- The ground is as hard as stone after the long drought.
- It's very hard to maintain a relationship.
- It's very hard on parents when their children are rebellious.
- He likes to pretend he is hard, but he is really soft underneath.
- He gave the door a hard shove and it opened.
- I don't want to go out in such hard weather.
- We need some hard evidence to support our claim.
- Most importantly, you must work hard to catch up.
- The senator was hard opposed by her rivals on the issue of social welfare.
- Small businesses in particular were hit hard by the recession.
- You need to keep moving ahead hard and confidently.
Make a hard knot.
Granite is a very hard stone.
The jar contained assorted hard candies.
Can linguistics ever be a hard science like physics?
The teacher asked a hard question.
That's hard work.
This behaviour is not conducive to hard work.
They have had a hard time bringing up ten children.
This project is a hard task.
Hard conditions turned her hair grey.
The village was quiet. Most farmers were fast asleep after a day's hard work.
Only hard work gives good results.
It takes hard work to get ahead in business.
Her husband is a hard drinker.
The hard rain flattened the tomato plants.
This has been a hard winter.
A hard illness kept him in bed for a whole year.
A hard blow knocked the boxer down.
We dealt hard blows at the enemy.
The lawyers exchanged hard words.
We know that this man is a hard bargainer.
He gave me a hard, bleak look.
John's father is a man with a hard heart.
Good sports records come from hard training.
He has a hard father.
He had a hard look on his face.
Hard feelings existed between the neighbours.
That's a hill hard to climb.
This bit of wood feels hard.
The rock here was hard as flint.
The soft, warm body became hard and cold.
The exam was extremely hard.
Though nurses' work is very hard,I like it very much.
When times are hard, incidents of theft and cheating usually go up.
Unloading the boxes is hard, inspecting them is difficult.
This job will be hard for me.
The stone is hard to the touch.
He is hard and unfeeling towards his children.
Life is really hard with Jim.
The poem is hard to understand.
Old habits are hard to break.
This seems hard to explain.
She says her husband is hard to please.
She is hard to deal with.
The ground is too hard to dig.
The task is too hard for them to finish ahead of time.
This candy is so hard that no one can chew it.
The book is so hard that I cannot read it at all.
It's hard to know what he's really thinking.
It's hard to say what is the best course of action.
It is hard to say whether he will win the election .
Without experience it is hard to avoid mistakes.
It's hard for an old man to change his lifestyle.
Regular physical exercises soon made the boys hard.
She found it hard to make up her mind.
They tried hard to succeed.
From this day forward,I will study hard.
Until recently he worked very hard on his mysterious experiments.
She decided to work harder so as to catch up with the others.
Tom followed hard behind me.
The policeman ran the thief hard and caught him at last.
I thought long and hard about the problem.
With my parents' hard earned money,I finished my school education.
It has been freezing hard since last week.
As the wind blew harder, the waves grew rougher.
Please don't boil eggs hard.
- as hard as a brick〔rock, stone〕
极硬的,硬如 very hard or firm
The loaf is as hard as a brick. 这块面包坚硬得像块砖头。
The biscuits she baked turned out to be as hard as rock. 她烤的饼干结果像石头一样硬。
- 极硬的,硬如 very hard or firm
- be hard on
严格对待或批评某人 treat or criticize sb severely
Don't be too hard on her—she's very young. 别对她太严了——她还小呢。
She's new at the job and bound to make a few mistakes, so don't be too hard on her. 她对这工作不熟悉,必定会出差错,因此别对她过分严厉。
She begged him not to be so hard on the child. 她要求他不要对孩子那么严厉。
对某人不公平 be unfair to sb
I know we can't make exceptions to our rules, but it's a bit hard on those who did nothing wrong. 我知道我们的规定不容许有例外,但对没做任何错事的人来说有点不公平。
It's hard on Jimmy, having to work when the rest of us are enjoying ourselves. 对吉米太不公平,我们其他人玩的时候他还不得不工作。
- 严格对待或批评某人 treat or criticize sb severely
- hard and fast
(规则等)不能变通的,不容更改的 (of rules, etc.) that cannot be altered to fit special cases; inflexible
This distinction isn't hard and fast. 这样的分类并非是一成不变的。
There are no hard and fast rules to be followed here. 这里没有严格的、固定不变的规则要遵守。
There are no hard and fast rules about the use of hyphens in English. 对于连字符号的使用,英语中没有严格的限制。
We must make it a hard and fast rule not to allow any parent to enter a classroom without first speaking to the headmaster. 我们一定要作出严格的规定,没有校长的许可,家长不得进入教室。
He stuck hard and fast to his principles. 他刻板地坚持自己的原则。
- (规则等)不能变通的,不容更改的 (of rules, etc.) that cannot be altered to fit special cases; inflexible
- hard going
难懂的,难欣赏的,令人厌烦的 difficult to understand or enjoy; boring
I'm finding this book very hard going. 我觉得这本书十分难懂。
- 难懂的,难欣赏的,令人厌烦的 difficult to understand or enjoy; boring
- hard lines〔luck〕 (on sb)
〈口〉(用作叹词或当提及某人的不幸时用以表示同情) used as an exclamation or a sympathetic comment on sb's misfortune
You failed your driving test,I hear—hard lines! 听说你驾驶执照考试没及格——真不走运!
It's hard luck on those who were beaten in the first round of the competition. 那些在第一轮比赛中就遭到失败的人真是倒霉。
- 〈口〉(用作叹词或当提及某人的不幸时用以表示同情) used as an exclamation or a sympathetic comment on sb's misfortune
- hard of hearing
听觉不灵的 rather deaf
It's difficult to talk to her, because she is hard of hearing. 跟她说话很难,因为她听觉不灵。
Can scientists help the hard of hearing to hear better? 科学家能帮助重听者听得更清楚一点吗?
We're a little hard of hearing out here. 我们这里消息很不灵通。
- 听觉不灵的 rather deaf
- hard to take
难以接受 difficult to accept without annoyance, grief or bitterness
I find his attitude very hard to take. 我觉得他的态度实在难以接受。
- 难以接受 difficult to accept without annoyance, grief or bitterness
- take a hard line (on〔over〕)
奉行强硬路线,持强硬态度 remain fixed and uncompromising in one's attitude, policy, etc.
Some of the employees have produced bad work, the management will have to take a hard line with them in future. 有些雇员工作得不好,管理部门势必采取硬性措施。
- 奉行强硬路线,持强硬态度 remain fixed and uncompromising in one's attitude, policy, etc.
- too much like hard work
太费劲,太累人 too demanding or wearisome to undertake
I don't want to go for a walk on such a hot day—it's too much like hard work for me. 我不想在这样的大热天里去散步——我简直吃不消。
- 太费劲,太累人 too demanding or wearisome to undertake
- be hard put (to it) to
难以 find it difficult to do sth
He was hard put to it to explain her disappearance. 他难以说明她为什么不见了。
We are hard put to find a replacement for our assistant. 我们很难找到一个人来代替我们的助手。
- 难以 find it difficult to do sth
- be hard up for
缺少某事物,需要某事物 have too few of sth; need sth
He's hard up for ideas. 他没有主意 。
The editor of the magazine was hard up for material. 那家杂志的编辑缺少材料。
I'm hard up for clothes, but I have a lot of books. 我缺少衣服,但是我有很多书。
- 缺少某事物,需要某事物 have too few of sth; need sth
- hard by
在附近,紧挨着 near by
There was an inn hard by. 附近有个客栈。
He stood hard by me. 他站在我的旁边。
- 在附近,紧挨着 near by
- hard done by
受到不当或不公正对待 unfairly treated
She feels rather hard done by. 她觉得有点委屈。
I felt very hard done by when I got less money than anybody else, after I had worked twice as hard. 我卖的力气比别人多一倍,但我得到的钱比谁都少,实在不公平。
- 受到不当或不公正对待 unfairly treated
- hard on
紧接着 very soon after
His death followed hard on hers. 他在她死后不久也死了。
- 紧接着 very soon after
- hard on sb's heels
紧跟某人 closely following sb
He ran ahead, with the others hard on his heels. 他在前头跑,其他人紧随其后。
- 紧跟某人 closely following sb
对某人〔某物〕产生不利影响 affect sb/sth badly hit sb/sth hard
The farmers were hard hit by the bad weather.恶劣的天气使农民受到沉重打击。
Television has hit the cinema industry very hard.电视的出现沉重地打击了电影业。
- 对某人〔某物〕产生不利影响 affect sb/sth badly hit sb/sth hard
因某事而极度悲伤或烦恼 be very grieved or upset by sth take sth hard
When their child died they took it very hard.孩子死的时候他们痛苦不堪。
He failed his examination, and he's taking it very hard.他考试不及格,因此非常难受。
- 因某事而极度悲伤或烦恼 be very grieved or upset by sth take sth hard
- hard bargain 大肆讨价还价
- hard customer 挑剔的顾客
- hard face 难看的脸
- hard heart 铁石心肠
- hard job 艰苦的工作
- hard knot 死结
- hard life 艰苦的生活
- hard liquor 烈性酒
- hard nut 硬果,难题
- hard storm 强烈的暴风雨
- hard time 艰难的时刻
- hard worker 勤奋的工人
- hard feelings 恶感,对立情绪
- hard money 硬币
- hard voice 难听的声音
- hard water 硬水
- hard way 比较艰难的路,比较困难的方式
- hard wood 硬木
- hard work 艰苦的工作
- hard to bear 难以忍受
- hard to break 难改
- hard to explain 难以说清楚
- hard to finish 难以完成
- hard to please 难以取悦
- hard to understand 难懂
The infantry: hard, bare feet rhythmically kicking up the dust.出自：E. Waugh
English muffins which had been toasted in the morning and were as hard as cement.出自：E. Hardwick
This is a hard question to answer.
- hard在hard of hearing（有些聋的）中有特殊含义“艰难的”，注意不适合用在别处；
This food is hard of digestion.
It is hard, if not impossible.
- 短语a hard time表示一个人的“困难时期”，而hard times则表示“不景气”。
- hard还可表示“费力的,费神的,艰难的” “持强硬态度的,不妥协的,不让步的” “有力的,猛烈的,严厉的” “困苦的,难以忍受的” “(声音)刺耳的,(颜色)刺目的” “酒精含量高的”等。
- hard在句中可用作定语或表语,其后可跟for〔to, with〕等介词短语、动词不定式、that从句。
- hard at, hard on
这两个短语都是“动词+介词(短语)”型短语,在句中作表语。其区别主要在意思上:hard at意为“努力工作〔学习〕”,其后多接work, study, task等名词; 而hard on意为“严格对待…”,其后多接表示人的名词,间或也可接表示事物的名词。
- hard, difficult
- Passing the examination is a difficult task.
- The making of a road is a hard job.
- hard, firm, solid
这三个词都可表示“坚硬的”“坚定的”。其区别是：firm指组织与构造是坚韧的,不容易因拉伸、弯曲而变形,暗示稳定或坚固; hard指厚实或坚硬,能抵抗压力,几乎不能压缩、拉伸或挖掘或极度执著,有顽固之意; solid指结构很坚固,密度一致,有很强的稳定性,能抵抗任何压力。例如:I took a firm hold on the rope.我牢牢地抓住了绳子。The ground was too hard to dig.这块地太硬没法挖。The buildings are surrounded with solid walls.这座建筑周围用坚硬的墙围着。
- hard up, lower classes, poor
这三个词(组)都用于描写一些人,这些人不能获得足够的钱物以保证像样的生活水平。其区别是：poor是其中最广义的词,可指长期或临时的物质或精神的匮乏; hard up是poor的口头用语,常指短期物质的匮乏,例如发工资前借钱买午餐或庄稼歉收时的农民,都可用hard up; lower classes习惯上用于指在任何社会中社会地位和经济地位最低的一些人,那些所谓lower classes的人通常是穷的,然而如今该词常用作带贬义的势利语,指那些胸无大志,缺少教养的人,这些人经济上也许贫也许富。例如:If prices continue to advance, poor people will find it hard to live.如果物价继续上涨,穷人的日子就更不好过了。I am hard up for money this month.我这个月手头拮据。He is a member of lower classes.他是下层社会的一员。
- hard, hardly
1.hard可作形容词或副词; 而hardly只能用作副词。2.hard意指“坚硬”“痛苦的”“结实的”“艰难地”“困苦地”“费力地”“困难地”; 而hardly是“几乎不”“几乎没有”的意思。
误 I am hard to solve this problem.
正 I find this problem hard to solve.
错句：it is hard work for me to make clear for you.
纠正：it is hard for me to make clear for you.
分析：常见格式为it is hard to do sth。
- ☆ 直接源自古英语的haerd，意为固体的，结实的，不软的；最初源自原始日耳曼语的kharthus。
- adj.(形容词) fierce forceful heavy intense powerful severe strong violent difficult exacting tough troublesome complex involved diligent earnest enterprising vigorous disagreeable distressing harsh oppressive rough brutal stern strict
- adv.(副词) furiously intently steadily heavily powerfully strongly
- hard:hard adj. 硬的, 坚固的, (问题, 工作等)困难的, 艰苦的, 猛烈的, 确实的adv. 努力地, 辛苦地, 坚硬地, 牢固地, 接近地, 猛烈地习惯用语hard as nails 铁石心…