['refrəns]     ['refrəns]    
  • n. 参考;参照;出处;推荐人;推荐函
  • v. 注明出处;附参考资料
referential referentially referencer referenced referenced referencing references



n. (名词)
  1. 参考
  2. 查询,咨询
  3. 委托
  4. 关系,关联
  5. 涉及,提到,说到,论到
  6. 证明人,介绍人,推荐人
  7. 证明书,介绍信,推荐信
  8. 委托项目
  9. 参考书,参考目录,附注
  10. 引证,引文
v. (动词)
  1. 加注,附加注脚,注明出处
  2. 给…列出参考书目,给…附参考资料
  3. 提出…做参考,附(图表、资料)以供参考
  4. 把…引作参考,引用,访问


n. (名词)
  1. [C][U]提及,涉及 (an example of) mentioning
  2. [U]参考,查阅 (an example of) looking at sth for information
  3. [C]引文; 参考书目 a piece of written information about sb's character, ability, etc. especially when they are looking for employment
  4. [C]证明书; 证明人; 推荐信; 推荐人 a person who provides such information
  5. [U]关联,关系 relation, correspondence (to)


  1. a remark that calls attention to something or someone;

    "she made frequent mention of her promotion"
    "there was no mention of it"
    "the speaker made several references to his wife"

  2. a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage;

    "the student's essay failed to list several important citations"
    "the acknowledgments are usually printed at the front of a book"
    "the article includes mention of similar clinical cases"

  3. an indicator that orients you generally;

    "it is used as a reference for comparing the heating and the electrical energy involved"

  4. a book to which you can refer for authoritative facts;

    "he contributed articles to the basic reference work on that topic"

  5. a formal recommendation by a former employer to a potential future employer describing the person's qualifications and dependability;

    "requests for character references are all too often answered evasively"

  6. the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression; the class of objects that an expression refers to;

    "the extension of `satellite of Mars' is the set containing only Demos and Phobos"

  7. the act of referring or consulting;

    "reference to an encyclopedia produced the answer"

  8. a publication (or a passage from a publication) that is referred to;

    "he carried an armful of references back to his desk"
    "he spent hours looking for the source of that quotation"

  9. (computer science) the code that identifies where a piece of information is stored

  10. the relation between a word or phrase and the object or idea it refers to;

    "he argued that reference is a consequence of conditioned reflexes"

  1. refer to;

    "he referenced his colleagues' work"



用作名词 (n.)
  1. This book is for reference only.
  2. This frame of reference will be determined by the limitations on the rational man's knowledge.
  3. Full reference citations are available on the readings page.
  4. Can we contact your references?
  5. He has a good reference from his former employer.
用作动词 (v.)
  1. Paraphrasing is not direct quotation, but you still need to reference it.
  2. Each chapter is referenced in minute detail.
  3. Each chapter is referenced, citing literature up to 1999.


用作名词 (n.)
without reference to
    不考虑…,置…于不顾not taking account of sb/sth


用作名词 (n.)
动词+~ 形容词+~ 介词+~ ~+介词


  • The gaoler would do what he'd been paid for without further reference to his employer.

    出自: L. Garfield
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