- adj. 硬的；困难的；棘手的；坚强的；残酷的；用力的；液态的；严寒的；确凿的
- adv. 努力地；强烈地；严重地；坚定地
- 硬的,坚实的,坚固的 not soft or yielding to the touch or easily cut; solid; firm
- 难做的,难懂的,难答的,困难的 difficult to do or understand or answer; not easy
- [A]辛苦的,努力的 showing much effort; energetic
- (天气)凛冽的 (of the weather) severe
- 硬心肠的,冷酷无情的,严厉的 unfeeling; unsympathetic; harsh
- 努力地 with great effort, energy or concentration; strenuously; intently
- 艰难地 with difficulty; with a struggle
- 严重地,猛烈地 severely; heavily
not easy; requiring great physical or mental effort to accomplish or comprehend or endure;
"a difficult task"
"nesting places on the cliffs are difficult of access"
"why is it so hard for you to keep a secret?"
"took a hard look"
"a hard bargainer"
resisting weight or pressure
very strong or vigorous;
"a hard left to the chin"
"a knockout punch"
"a severe blow"
characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort;
"worked their arduous way up the mining valley"
"a grueling campaign"
"spent many laborious hours on the project"
"set a punishing pace"
produced without vibration of the vocal cords;
"unvoiced consonants such as `p' and `k' and `s'"
(of light) transmitted directly from a pointed light source
(of speech sounds); produced with the back of the tongue raised toward or touching the velum;
"Russian distinguished between hard consonants and palatalized or soft consonants"
given to excessive indulgence of bodily appetites especially for intoxicating liquors;
"a hard drinker"
being distilled rather than fermented; having a high alcoholic content;
unfortunate or hard to bear;
"had hard luck"
"a tough break"
"hard dry rolls left over from the day before"
with effort or force or vigor;
"the team played hard"
"worked hard all day"
"pressed hard on the lever"
"hit the ball hard"
"slammed the door hard"
"held hard to the railing"
earnestly or intently;
"thought hard about it"
"stared hard at the accused"
causing great damage or hardship;
"industries hit hard by the depression"
"she was severely affected by the bank's failure"
slowly and with difficulty;
"prejudices die hard"
"he drank heavily"
into a solid condition;
"concrete that sets hard within a few hours"
very near or close in space or time;
"it stands hard by the railroad tracks"
"they were hard on his heels"
"a strike followed hard upon the plant's opening"
with pain or distress or bitterness;
"he took the rejection very hard"
to the full extent possible; all the way;
"the ship went hard astern"
"swung the wheel hard left"
- The ground is as hard as stone after the long drought.
- It's very hard to maintain a relationship.
- It's very hard on parents when their children are rebellious.
- He likes to pretend he is hard, but he is really soft underneath.
- She has really good looks but a hard heart.
- He gave the door a hard shove and it opened.
- I don't want to go out in such hard weather.
- We need some hard evidence to support our claim.
- Most importantly, you must work hard to catch up.
- The senator was hard opposed by her rivals on the issue of social welfare.
- Small businesses in particular were hit hard by the recession.
- You need to keep moving ahead hard and confidently.
- Make a hard knot.
- Granite is a very hard stone.
- The jar contained assorted hard candies.
- Can linguistics ever be a hard science like physics?
- The teacher asked a hard question.
- That's hard work.
- This behaviour is not conducive to hard work.
- They have had a hard time bringing up ten children.
- This project is a hard task.
- Hard conditions turned her hair grey.
- The village was quiet. Most farmers were fast asleep after a day's hard work.
- Only hard work gives good results.
- It takes hard work to get ahead in business.
- Her husband is a hard drinker.
- The hard rain flattened the tomato plants.
- This has been a hard winter.
- A hard illness kept him in bed for a whole year.
- A hard blow knocked the boxer down.
- We dealt hard blows at the enemy.
- The lawyers exchanged hard words.
- We know that this man is a hard bargainer.
- He gave me a hard, bleak look.
- John's father is a man with a hard heart.
- Good sports records come from hard training.
- He has a hard father.
- He had a hard look on his face.
- Hard feelings existed between the neighbours.
- That's a hill hard to climb.
- This bit of wood feels hard.
- The rock here was hard as flint.
- The soft, warm body became hard and cold.
- The exam was extremely hard.
- Though nurses' work is very hard,I like it very much.
- When times are hard, incidents of theft and cheating usually go up.
- Unloading the boxes is hard, inspecting them is difficult.
- This job will be hard for me.
- The stone is hard to the touch.
- He is hard and unfeeling towards his children.
- Life is really hard with Jim.
- The poem is hard to understand.
- Old habits are hard to break.
- This seems hard to explain.
- She says her husband is hard to please.
- She is hard to deal with.
- The ground is too hard to dig.
- The task is too hard for them to finish ahead of time.
- This candy is so hard that no one can chew it.
- The book is so hard that I cannot read it at all.
- It's hard to know what he's really thinking.
- It's hard to say what is the best course of action.
- It is hard to say whether he will win the election .
- Without experience it is hard to avoid mistakes.
- It's hard for an old man to change his lifestyle.
- Regular physical exercises soon made the boys hard.
- She found it hard to make up her mind.
- They tried hard to succeed.
- From this day forward,I will study hard.
- Until recently he worked very hard on his mysterious experiments.
- She decided to work harder so as to catch up with the others.
- Tom followed hard behind me.
- The policeman ran the thief hard and caught him at last.
- I thought long and hard about the problem.
- With my parents' hard earned money,I finished my school education.
- It has been freezing hard since last week.
- As the wind blew harder, the waves grew rougher.
- Please don't boil eggs hard.
- as hard as a brick〔rock, stone〕
极硬的,硬如 very hard or firm
- be hard on
对某人不公平 be unfair to sb
- hard and fast
(规则等)不能变通的,不容更改的 (of rules, etc.) that cannot be altered to fit special cases; inflexible
- hard going
难懂的,难欣赏的,令人厌烦的 difficult to understand or enjoy; boring
- hard lines〔luck〕 (on sb)
〈口〉(用作叹词或当提及某人的不幸时用以表示同情) used as an exclamation or a sympathetic comment on sb's misfortune
- hard of hearing
听觉不灵的 rather deaf
- hard to take
难以接受 difficult to accept without annoyance, grief or bitterness
- take a hard line (on〔over〕)
奉行强硬路线,持强硬态度 remain fixed and uncompromising in one's attitude, policy, etc.
- too much like hard work
太费劲,太累人 too demanding or wearisome to undertake
- be hard put (to it) to
难以 find it difficult to do sth
- be hard up for
缺少某事物,需要某事物 have too few of sth; need sth
- hard by
在附近,紧挨着 near by
- hard done by
受到不当或不公正对待 unfairly treated
- hard on
紧接着 very soon after
- hard on sb's heels
紧跟某人 closely following sb
对某人〔某物〕产生不利影响 affect sb/sth badly
hit sb/sth hard
The farmers were hard hit by the bad weather.
Television has hit the cinema industry very hard.
因某事而极度悲伤或烦恼 be very grieved or upset by sth
take sth hard
When their child died they took it very hard.
He failed his examination, and he's taking it very hard.
- hard bargain 大肆讨价还价
- hard customer 挑剔的顾客
- hard face 难看的脸
- hard heart 铁石心肠
- hard job 艰苦的工作
- hard knot 死结
- hard life 艰苦的生活
- hard liquor 烈性酒
- hard nut 硬果,难题
- hard storm 强烈的暴风雨
- hard time 艰难的时刻
- hard worker 勤奋的工人
- hard feelings 恶感,对立情绪
- hard money 硬币
- hard voice 难听的声音
- hard water 硬水
- hard way 比较艰难的路,比较困难的方式
- hard wood 硬木
- hard work 艰苦的工作
- hard to bear 难以忍受
- hard to break 难改
- hard to explain 难以说清楚
- hard to finish 难以完成
- hard to please 难以取悦
- hard to understand 难懂
The infantry: hard, bare feet rhythmically kicking up the dust.出自： E. Waugh
English muffins which had been toasted in the morning and were as hard as cement.出自： E. Hardwick
- hard还可表示“费力的,费神的,艰难的” “持强硬态度的,不妥协的,不让步的” “有力的,猛烈的,严厉的” “困苦的,难以忍受的” “(声音)刺耳的,(颜色)刺目的” “酒精含量高的”等。
- hard在句中可用作定语或表语,其后可跟for〔to, with〕等介词短语、动词不定式、that从句。
This is a hard question to answer.
- hard在hard of hearing（有些聋的）中有特殊含义“艰难的”，注意不适合用在别处；
This food is hard of digestion.
It is hard, if not impossible.
- 短语a hard time表示一个人的“困难时期”，而hard times则表示“不景气”。
- hard at, hard on
- 这两个短语都是“动词+介词(短语)”型短语,在句中作表语。其区别主要在意思上:hard at意为“努力工作〔学习〕”,其后多接work, study, task等名词; 而hard on意为“严格对待…”,其后多接表示人的名词,间或也可接表示事物的名词。
- hard, difficult
- difficult是较正式的用词,主要指智力方面的困难,多意味着“复杂”“难以处理”“难以了解”“需要智慧或技巧”; hard是口语用词,主要是指体力方面的困难,多意味着“不易做”。试比较:
- Passing the examination is a difficult task.
- The making of a road is a hard job.
- hard, firm, solid
- firm指组织与构造是坚韧的,不容易因拉伸、弯曲而变形,暗示稳定或坚固; hard指厚实或坚硬,能抵抗压力,几乎不能压缩、拉伸或挖掘或极度执著,有顽固之意; solid指结构很坚固,密度一致,有很强的稳定性,能抵抗任何压力。例如:
- I took a firm hold on the rope.我牢牢地抓住了绳子。
- The ground was too hard to dig.这块地太硬没法挖。
- The buildings are surrounded with solid walls.这座建筑周围用坚硬的墙围着。
- hard up, lower classes, poor
- poor是其中最广义的词,可指长期或临时的物质或精神的匮乏; hard up是poor的口头用语,常指短期物质的匮乏,例如发工资前借钱买午餐或庄稼歉收时的农民,都可用hard up; lower classes习惯上用于指在任何社会中社会地位和经济地位最低的一些人,那些所谓lower classes的人通常是穷的,然而如今该词常用作带贬义的势利语,指那些胸无大志,缺少教养的人,这些人经济上也许贫也许富。例如:
- If prices continue to advance, poor people will find it hard to live.如果物价继续上涨,穷人的日子就更不好过了。
- I am hard up for money this month.我这个月手头拮据。
- He is a member of lower classes.他是下层社会的一员。
- hard, hardly
- 1.hard可作形容词或副词; 而hardly只能用作副词。
- 2.hard意指“坚硬”“痛苦的”“结实的”“艰难地”“困苦地”“费力地”“困难地”; 而hardly是“几乎不”“几乎没有”的意思。
误 I am hard to solve this problem.
正 I find this problem hard to solve.
- ☆ 直接源自古英语的heard，意为固体的，结实的，不软的；最初源自原始日耳曼语的kharthus。
- strict adv.