by

  基本词汇  
[baɪ]     [baɪ]    
  • prep.靠近;通过;被;经由;不迟于
  • adv.经过;在旁边;靠近
new

by是什么意思,词典释义与在线翻译:

双解释义

prep.(介词)
  1. (表示位置)在…近旁; 在身边 near
  2. (表示时间)不迟于; 在…时候 not later than
  3. (表示移动方向)从…中经过 passing through or along
  4. (表示方式)搭乘,通过; 抓住…; 靠,采取; 就…而论; 以…称呼方式; 以…的名义; 凭着 through the use or means of
  5. (表示原因)随…而来 as the result of
  6. (表示方位)偏于 inclined to one side
  7. (表示环境)借着…光亮 depend upon the light of
  8. (表示关涉)经过 passing through
  9. (表示程度)以…之差 with disparity of
  10. (表示关系)对待 treat
  11. (表示依据)根据 in accordance with
  12. (表示比率)以…幅度; 以…为单位; …比 …to the amount or degree of
  13. (表示累加)(一个)接着 one by one
  14. (表示动作者)被〔由〕; 由…创作〔演奏〕 show the name of the person who wrote a book, directed a film, made a work of art, etc.
adv.(副词)
  1. 在近旁 near
  2. 经过,走过 past
  3. 保留 in reserve

行业释义

提示:各行业词典APP中含有本词条的独家正版内容,在手机上可看到更多释义内容。
by : 经, 由, 依 ...
在 《金融术语英语词典 》 中查看更多...

英英释义

Adverb:
  1. so as to pass a given point;

    "every hour a train goes past"

  2. in reserve; not for immediate use;

    "started setting aside money to buy a car"
    "put something by for her old age"
    "has a nest egg tucked away for a rainy day"

by的用法和样例:

例句

用作介词 (prep.)
  1. The house by the lake is a restaurant.
    湖边的那座房子是家饭店。
  2. He entered by the back door.
    他从后门进入。
  3. The project was viewed favorably by the committee.
    那计划受到该委员会的好评。
用作副词 (adv.)
  1. He hurried by and disappeared in the wood.
    他匆匆走过去,消失在森林里。
  2. I always keep a bottle of wine by in case friends call round.
    我平时总存着一瓶酒以备朋友来时喝。
  3. He lives near by.
    他住在附近。

常见句型

用作介词 (prep.)
  1. On a cold evening it is pleasant to sit by the fire.
    在寒冷的夜晚坐在炉火旁边很舒服。
  2. He keeps a dictionary by him when he's reading.
    他读书时,手边总放着一本词典。
  3. Be here by four o'clock.
    四点钟之前到这儿。
  4. She should be back by now.
    她现在应该回来了。
  5. If they have a journey to make, most people prefer to go by day.
    如果要旅行,大多数人喜欢在白天进行。
  6. They came in by the back door.
    他们是由后门进来的。
  7. Are you to go there by bike or by bus?
    你骑车还是坐车去?
  8. You can order tickets by telephone.
    你可以用电话订票。
  9. The money will be paid by cheque.
    此款将由支票支付。
  10. He seized her by the arm.
    他抓住她的手臂。
  11. Man does not live by bread alone.
    人不能单靠面包生存。
  12. They were making a living by selling souvenirs to the tourists.
    他们靠向旅游者出售纪念品来谋生。
  13. They decided to raise the money by subscription.
    他们决定采取募捐的办法来筹集这笔款项。
  14. By temperament he was an artist.
    从气质上看,他是一位画家。
  15. They always addressed each other by their Christian name.
    他们总是以教名互相称呼。
  16. By God he's done it!
    老天为证,他确实做了此事。
  17. I did it all by myself!
    我完全是靠自己做此事的。
  18. The meeting will be held in the school hall, by permission of the headmaster.
    由于有校长的准许,会议将在学校大厅举行。
  19. The steamer will go west by north.
    这艘轮船将向西偏北方向航行。
  20. They were playing cards by electric light.
    他们正借着灯光打牌。
  21. I go by the house every day.
    我每天都要从这栋房子经过。
  22. We lost the match by one goal.
    我们以一分之差输了比赛。
  23. He deals ill by his wife.
    他待妻子不好。
  24. It's not fair to judge people by their appearance.
    以貌取人是不公正的。
  25. Its grant is to be cut by more than 40 percent.
    其补助将削减40%以上。
  26. Most workmen are paid by the week.
    大多数工人按周付给薪水。
  27. The lounge is twenty feet by fourteen.
    这间起居室长20英尺,宽14英尺。
  28. Day by day he applied himself to the task until it was finished.
    他日复一日地投入那项工作,直到完成为止。
  29. He was brought up by an aunt.
    他是由婶婶抚育成人的。
  30. Above it hung an oil painting by Beryl.
    它的上方挂着一幅贝丽尔创作的油画。
  31. We should help our brother communities by all means in our power.
    我们应该尽力帮助兄弟社团。
  32. Oh by the way, have you heard from Bill lately?
    哦,顺便问一下,你最近得到比尔的消息了吗?
用作副词 (adv.)
  1. She hurried by without speaking to her teacher.
    她匆匆经过,没有跟她的老师说话。
  2. Come by for a drink after work.
    下班后路过我家时进来喝一杯。
  3. She stole the book when no one was by.
    她趁旁边无人时把书偷走了。

常用短语

用作介词 (prep.)
by accident
  1. 偶然地 without any intention or planning

    I did it by accident. 我偶然做了这件事。

    The other day I met her by accident. 前几天我偶然遇到了她。

    Columbus discovered America by accident. 哥伦布偶然发现了美洲。

    Fleming discovered penicillin by accident in 1928. 弗莱明在1928年偶然发现了青霉素。

    He found the wallet purely by accident. 他捡到这个钱包完全是碰巧。

    Helen got into acting purely by accident. 海伦当演员完全出于偶然。

    They fell in love by accident. 他们偶然堕入爱河。

    I read of it quite by accident in the latest edition of the Global . 我是偶然在最近一期《环球》杂志上看到它的。

    I have heard by accident that he will go to New York next week. 我偶然听说他下周要去纽约。

    She found the jewel by accident. 她意外地发现了这件珠宝。

    He made this mistake by accident. 他偶然犯了这个错误。

    My friend came to an untimely end by accident. 我的朋友遭不测而早逝。

    I cut my foot by accident. 我意外弄破了自己的脚。

    The boy cut his finger by accident. 那男孩意外地割破了手指。

    The gun went off by accident. 枪意外地走火了。

    My arm was put out by accident. 我的胳臂意外脱了臼。

    Quite by accident, she came up with a brilliantly simple solution. 在纯属偶然的情况下,她想出了一个绝妙的简便办法。

    I met her by a happy accident. 我偶然遇见她,真叫我高兴。

by all means
  1. 当然可以certainly
  2. 一定,务必must

    Try by all means to save the dying. 一定要尽力抢救那个垂危的病人。

by analogy
  1. 用类推方法by a process of reasoning between parallel cases

    He explained the subject by analogy. 他用类推法说明了这个问题。

by analogy with
  1. 根据…类推deducing (sth) according to sth

    Historically there be no letter “l” in the word “could”;it was inserted by analogy with “would”. 在历史上,could一词中没有字母l;那是按照would一词类推而加上去的。

    It is sometimes easier to illustrate an abstract concept by analogy with something concrete. 有时通过与某种具体事物的类比,更容易说明某个抽象的概念。

    “Popedom” is formed on the analogy of “kingdom”. popedom 是从kingdom类推出来的。

    A group was set up on the analogy of a self-supporting community. 一个团体仿照自给自足的社会群体而建立起来。

    There is a tendency among children to say “thunk” on the analogy of “sunk”. 小孩子往往根据sunk的发音类推thunk。

by any chance
  1. 或许; 可能 perhaps; possibly

    Would you by any chance have change for 5 pounds? 你能给我兑换5英镑的零钱吗?

    If, by any chance he fails to come, we'll ask another one. 万一他没来,我们就叫别人。

    Do you have by any chance a pen with you? 你带笔了吗?

by chance
  1. 偶然地,意外地 by accident; accidentally; unintentionally

    I met her quite by chance. 我遇见她完全是偶然的。

    I heard their talking by chance. 我偶然听到他们的谈话。

by common consent
  1. 公认 generally acknowledge

    Shakespeare is, by common consent, the greatest English dramatist. 莎士比亚被公认是英国最伟大的剧作家。

by comparison
  1. 比较起来when compared

    This dress is really cheaper by comparison. 比较起来,这件衣服确实便宜。

    By comparison,expenditure on education increased last year. 相比之下,去年教育经费增加了。

by contrast
  1. 参见contrast条。
by courtesy of
  1. 蒙…的好意,蒙…提供 by the permission or generosity of sb

    This picture appears in the exhibition by courtesy of the local government. 这幅画蒙地方政府的允许在画展上展出。

by degrees
  1. 一点一点地,逐渐地 gradually

    He is picking up the language by degrees. 他一点一点地学会了这门语言。

    By degrees their friendship grew into love. 他们的友谊渐渐发展成为爱情。

    She grows stronger by degrees. 她逐渐的强壮起来。

    He's getting better by degrees. 他逐渐好起来。

by far
  1. …得多,更,尤其 by a great amount

    This is better by far. 这个好多了。

    This is by far the taller of the two. 两者一比,这个高得多了。

    This book is by far better than that one. 这本书比那本书好得多了。

    This is by far the best of all. 这是所有之中最好的。

    That is by far the best choice. 那是最好的选择。

    She is by far the most active student in our class. 她是我们班最活跃的学生。

    He is by far the tallest among us. 在我们中间,他的个头最高。

    He is taking the shortest route, the shortest by far. 他正操最短的路线,显然是最短的捷径。

by hand
  1. 用手;亲自 using one's hand; in person

    The insecticide might harm the flowers.Let's pick off the insects by hand. 杀虫剂可能会伤害花朵。我们用手把虫捉下来吧。

    He brought up the child by hand. 那孩子是他亲手带大的。

    The note was delivered by hand. 这个通知是送来的。

by heart
  1. 凭记性 by memory

    I must learn this text by heart. 我必须把这篇课文背下来。

    The boy learned the poem by heart. 这男孩背下了这首诗。

by itself
  1. 独自地; 无需外力地alone; without help

    The machine will start by itself in a few seconds. 几秒钟后,机器将自行启动。

by leaps and bounds
  1. 非常迅速,突飞猛进very quickly and successfully

    Her French is improving by leaps and bounds. 她的法语进步非常快。

by means of
  1. 参见mean条。
by mistake
  1. 错误地 as a result of carelessness, forgetfulness, etc.; in error

    I took his umbrella by mistake. 我错拿了他的雨伞。

    I took your bag instead of mine by mistake. 我没有拿自己的包而错拿了你的。

by no means
  1. 参见mean条。
by reason of
  1. 由于because of

    The arrangement was cancelled by reason of his illness. 因为他生病,原先的安排就取消了。

    The scheme failed by reason of bad organization. 由于组织不当,这计划失败了。

by rights
  1. 要是公正的话,公正地 if justice were done; in justice

    By rights, half the reward should be mine. 按理说,有一半奖赏应该是我的。

by the book
  1. 按规则,依照惯例according to the rules

    He's always careful to do things by the book. 他总是小心翼翼地按规章办事。

    He is an unimaginative individual who does everything by the book. 他是一个一切照章办事,缺想象力的人。

by the by
  1. 顺便提一句by the way

    We shall expect you,by the by,dinner will be at eight. 我们等你;还有,晚饭是在8点钟。

    By the by,do you intend going to the flower show next Wednesday? 顺便问一下,你可打算去参加下周三的花展?

    〔说明〕 本短语中的第一个by是介词,第二个是名词,是名词bye的变异。

by the same token
  1. 由于同样原因,同样地in the same way

    By the same token,we should like to thank your brother. 由于同样原因,我们向你兄弟表示谢意。

    She had never seen such poverty before,and by the same token could not quite believe it. 她从来没有看到过如此的穷困,而且她也不太相信竟有如此的贫穷存在。

by the way
  1. 顺便地,附带说说 used to introduce a comment or question that is only indirectly related, if at all, to the main subject of conversation

    Oh, by the way, there is a telephone message for you. 哦,对了,有你一个电话口信。

    By the way, have you heard from Bill lately? 顺便问一下,你最近收到比尔的信了吗?

    By the way, what time is it? 顺便问一下,现在几点了?

    What did you say your name was, by the way? 顺便问一句,您说您的名字叫什么来着?

by trial and error
  1. 反复试验,不断摸索by trying various solutions and learning from one's failure

    Children learn to use computer programs by trial and error. 孩子们通过反复摸索才学会运用计算机程序。

    He learned to cook by trial and error. 他不断尝试学烹调。

by turns
  1. 轮流地; 交替地 one after the other; in rotation

    We did the work by turns. 我们轮流干这活。

    She was by turns ecstatic and terrified. 她一会儿欣喜若狂,一会儿惊恐万状。

    There were twelve of us in the boat and we rowed by turns. 我们船上一共有12人,轮流划桨。

by virtue of
  1. 凭借,依靠,因为,由于by means of or because of sth

    He got the job by virtue of his greater experience. 他由于经验较为丰富而得到了那份工作的。

    Plastic bags are useful for holding many kinds of food,by virtue of their clearness,toughness,and low cost. 塑料袋可用来装各种食品,因为它清洁、耐用又价廉。

by way of
  1. 路经,途经 by a route that includes; viaThey are travelling to France by way of London.他们经伦敦去法国。

    They returned by way of Hong Kong. 他们是取道香港回来的。

    We travelled through Germany by way of Hamburg,Cologne and Munich. 我们取道汉堡,科隆和慕尼黑游历了德国。

    I can easily come home by way of the Post Office and get your stamps. 我回家可以路经邮局,给你买几张邮票很容易。

  2. 作为,当作 as a type of sth or serving as sthWe had some sandwiches by way of a meal.我们吃了一些三明治,就算是一顿饭了。

    By way of an introduction,I shall explain some of the historical background. 作为开场白,我来解释一下历史背景。

    Henry is by way of being a nuisance. 亨利几乎成了人见人烦的家伙。

  3. 意在,为了 with the intention of or for the purpose ofBy way of introduction to my subject,I'd like to tell you how I first came to be interested in it.为了引入我的话题,我想告诉你我起初是怎样对这个问题感兴趣的。

    Let's eat out tonight, by way of a change. 咱们到外面去吃饭吧,换换口味。

    What are you thinking of doing by way of a holiday this year? 今年的假期你打算怎么过?

    By way of introducing himself he showed me his card. 为了介绍他自己,他让我看了他的名片。

    He did it by way of helping me. 他这么做的目的在于帮助我。

用作副词 (adv.)
by and by
  1. 不久,马上 before long; soon

    Summer vacation will come by and by. 暑假很快就要来到。

by and large
  1. 总的来说 on the whole;in general

    By and large, the British working class is better off today than it was a generation ago. 大体上说,英国工人阶级的境况比二、三十年前更好。

    By and large, women can bear pain better than men. 一般说来,女人比男人更能忍受痛苦。

词汇搭配

用作介词 (prep.)
动词+~ 动词+名词+~ ~+名词 名词+~+名词 副词+~ ~+副词 副词+~+副词 ~+代词 ~+数词 数词+~+数词
用作副词 (adv.)
动词+~
  • call by 顺便访问
  • come by 进来
  • drop by 顺便访问
  • get by 通过;还可以,勉强可接受;设法勉强生存
  • go by 经过
  • put...by 存(钱等)以备未来之需
  • roll by (时间)流逝
  • scrape by 勉强及格,勉强度过去
  • stand by 袖手旁观;准备行动;在场,在附近
  • stop by (顺便)过访,串门
  • tick by (时间)流逝;(钟表)滴滴答答响

经典引文

  • He taried..at Joppa by one Simon.

    出自:Bible (Coverdale): Acts
  • Down by the Docks they 'board seamen' at the eating houses.

    出自:Dickens
  • A cat sits on the pavement by the house.

    出自:R. Jarrell

by的详细讲解:

词语用法

prep.(介词)
  1. by在表示时间时,常与动词的一般时、将来时、完成时或将来完成时连用。作“在…时候”解时,常用于by day〔night〕短语中。
  2. by表示方式(除作“抓住…”解时)或原因后接名词时,名词前通常不加冠词。
  3. by表示方式作“凭着”解时,其后常接反身代词; 作“乘”解时,后接交通工具,其前不加冠词。
  4. by表示比率作“以…为单位”解时,常与表示单位的名词或数词连用,名词前常用定冠词; 作“…比…”解时,用于两个数字之间表示面积。
  5. by表示累加时,前后一般用同一个名词、数词或副词,名词前不用定冠词,且不用于复数形式。
  6. by表示动作者的时候,常用于被动结构。
  7. by用于被动结构时,既可以引出施动者,也可用来表示做某事的手段。

词义辨析

prep.(介词)
by, according to, from, in, on, under
这组词的共同意思是“根据”“按照”。其区别是:
according to是这组词中最常用的一个,可指依据某人的话语、说法、指示,也可指按照某计划、法规等,可以是正式的,也可以是非正式的; by的本意是“凭借某种手段、方式”,由此引申出“依据,按照”,其宾语常为某种规则、法规、标准、习俗等; from的本意是“来源”,由此引申出“根据事物的来源判断”; in指“依据”时,仅见于与eye, opinion, view等表示观点的名词或order, sequence等表示顺序的名词连用,还见于in law, in practice, in theory等短语中; on是根据事物发生和存在所依靠的基础这一用法,由此引申为“根据,按照”,与之连用的词一般是表示忠告、规则、命令、指示、协议、建议、原理的名词; under通常指根据正式的协议、法令、条款、合同等,含有在其控制或约束之下的意味。
by, after, at, for,from, over, through, with
这两个词都可表示“按照”“根据”“依照”“依从”。其区别在于:
1.at多接抽象名词; 而by多接具体名词。
2.这两个词都有“按…计算”的意思,不过by用于英式英语; at用于美式英语。
by, at
这两个词都可表示“按照”“根据”“依照”“依从”。其区别在于:
1.at多接抽象名词; 而by多接具体名词。
2.这两个词都有“按…计算”的意思,不过by用于英式英语; at用于美式英语。
by, before
这两个词都可表示“在…之前”。before所表示的时间不包括其宾语所指时间在内,与之连用的动词可以是延续性动词,也可以是瞬间动词; by所表示的时间包括宾语所指的时间在内,因而常译成“不迟于…”。
by, beside, near, on
这组词的共同意思是“靠近,在…旁边”。beside是一般用语,其宾语可以是表示任何人或事物的名词; by强调“紧贴”,其宾语可以是一般的人或事物,但更常见的是side或含有side的名词; near所指的距离要比by远得多,其宾语可是任何表示人或事物的名词; on一般表示与江〔河,湖,海〕岸或铁路线呈线状的地点相接触,含有“邻接,濒临”的意思。
by, about, on,with
参见about条。
by, in
这两个词都有“不迟于”的意思,但in表明的是一段时间; 而by只是用在日历上确定的时间,或者日历上的一点。
by oneself, alone
这两者均可译为“独自地”“单独地”,其差别主要在于:
1.从造成“独自地”原因上说, alone可以是主动的,也可以是被动的; 而by oneself则是主动的,是主观上愿意把自己与他人隔绝开来而造成的。例如:
  • 他总是单独一个人吃午饭。
  • He always has his lunch alone.
  • (只说明客观事实)
  • He always has his lunch by himself.
  • (含有愿意如此的意味)
2.从“独自地”性质上说, alone可以是正常的,也可以是不正常的; 而by oneself则多是反常的,或者是出乎意料的。例如:
  • 他自己单独生活。
  • He lives alone.
  • (只说明客观事实)
  • He lives by himself.
  • (含有该成家却单身的反常意味)
by, till
这两者均可与表示时间的词连用。by指动作在宾语所指的时间前发生,与非持续性动词连用; 而till则指动作或状态持续到宾语所指的时间为止,常与非持续性动词的否定形式或持续性动词连用。

常见错误

prep.(介词)
  1. 我是坐船到美国来的。

    I came to America by a ship.

    I came to America by ship.

    by表示“乘”“坐”,后跟宾语,往往不加冠词。

  2. 他要坐6:30的火车走。

    He is leaving by 6:30 train.

    He is leaving by the 6:30 train.

    表示交通方式的by短语中的名词若有表示具体时间的词语修饰,须加定冠词。

词源解说

  • ☆ 直接源自古英语的be orb i,意为靠近,在,经由,大约。

by的相关资料:

正版词典

by : 由,被,乘 ...
在 《外研社英语词典》 中查看更多...

近反义词

【同义词】

缩略词

by的相关缩略词,共有17

互动百科

  • by:by prep. 在附近, 在旁边, 经, 由, 依据, 按照, 通过, 用adv. 通过, 经过, 附近[域] Belarus, 白俄罗斯习惯用语by and again 时时, 常常by and…

临近单词

目录
应用 附录 查词历史
    今日热词