- A tract of land cultivated for the purpose of agricultural production.
- The meaning of Ju Niu should be the amount of land cultivated by analysing the Qing documents as well as Shanxi local chronicles.
- The land previously cultivated returned to forest.
- Only one third of the land can be cultivated.
- Over the centuries it was protected by dikes and later drained, making the land cultivable and habitable.
- The medium and samll-sized tractors made in China can also be used here for land cultivation and transportation.