- vt. 把 ... 提交；把 ... 归因；归类
- vi. 参考；谈及；咨询
- vi. & vt. 提到; 针对 mention or speak about ; concern; be directed towards or be relevant to
- vi. 参考; 查阅 look at for information
- vt. 送交; 提交 hand over; submit
- vt. 归于 point to as the source or origin of
make reference to;
"His name was mentioned in connection with the invention"
be relevant to;
"There were lots of questions referring to her talk"
"My remark pertained to your earlier comments"
think of, regard, or classify under a subsuming principle or with a general group or in relation to another;
"This plant can be referred to a known species"
send or direct for treatment, information, or a decision;
"refer a patient to a specialist"
"refer a bill to a committee"
seek information from;
"You should consult the dictionary"
"refer to your notes"
have as a meaning;
"`multi-' denotes `many' "
use a name to designate;
"Christians refer to the mother of Jesus as the Virgin Mary"
- We referred the proposal to the board of directors.
- You should refer this matter to the head office for a decision.
- He referred all his troubles to bad luck.
- Botanists refer this flower to the rose family.
- You can refer to a dictionary if necessary.
- The speaker often referred to his notes.
- Don't refer to this matter again please.
- She referred to the subject several times during her speech.
- Refer to the Manager if confusion arises.
- refer back (v.+adv.)
转回; 搁置 send back; lay aside
refer sth ⇔ back
The question was referred back.
The decision must be referred back, as there is now fresh information to be considered.
- refer back to (v.+adv.+prep.)
重新提及; 查阅; 使记起或想起 mention sth again; remind (sb) of (sth already seen, spoken, or known)
refer sth back to sth
We referred the matter back to the Finance Committee.
The shop referred the complaint back to the makers of the article.
商店把投诉转给了商品制造厂家。refer back to sth
I would like to refer back to the first of my three points.
We must refer back to the first letter we received from that firm.
No referring back to books and notes!
不准看书和笔记!refer sb back to sth
May I refer you back to my earlier remarks on this subject?
- refer to (v.+prep.)
为…而向…提及 speak about sth for sth
refer to sb/sth
Many teachers talk at length about educational principles without once referring to a real child.
Don't refer to the matter again.
No one referred to yesterday's quarrel.
The speaker referred to the past to make his point.
It was unwise in your speech to refer to rising unemployment.
你在发言中提到失业人数的增长是不明智的。refer to sb/sth
Does your remark refer to all of us?
When I said some people were stupid I wasn't referring to you.
We referred to the U.S. Cabinet as of Sept.1,1958.
我们指的是1958年9月1日当时的美国内阁。refer to sb/sth
The regulations refer only to children.
The new law does not refer to land used for farming.
那条新法律并不涉及农业用地。refer sb/sth to sb/sth
For further particulars I refer you to my secretary.
If he gives any more trouble you refer him to me.
He referred the case to the High Court.
The members referred the question to the committee, as they were unable to reach a decision.
I was referred to the manager.
The dispute was referred to the United Nations.
这场争执已提交联合国处理。refer to sth
If you don't know the exact meaning of the word, you may refer to the dictionary.
Refer to the dictionary when you don't know how to spell a word.
By referring to his notes, the speaker was able to give the exact details required.
I referred to my watch for the exact time.
我看了一下手表好知道准确时间。refer sb to sth
The asterisk refers the reader to a footnote.
星号是让读者参看脚注。refer sth to sth
Some people refer all the troubles to bad luck instead of lack of ability.
Many successful businessmen refer their success to hard work and good judgement.
The invention of the compass was referred to China.
This style of music is generally referred to the 18th century.
这种音乐风格通常属于18世纪。refer oneself to sb
He never refers himself to us when he has difficulties.
当他有困难时,从不求助于我们。refer to sb for sth
He referred to me for information.
The minister often refers to his connoisseurs and other experts for necessary information.
- refer to...as
把…称为; 认为…是 regard sb/sth as what sb/sth is
refer to sb/sth as n\u002e
The children used to refer to that old teacher as Grandpa.
Don't refer to your sister as a silly pig.
On all occasions he referred to us as lads.
They referred to this kind of art as minimal art.
The scientist referred to the discovery as the most exciting new development in this field.
English is referred to as a universal language.
Coal is often referred to as food for industry.
A ship is sometimes referred to as “she”.
All these are referred to as animals.
California is referred to as the Golden State.
Accounting principles are also referred to as standards.
A portion of the waves is there reflected from the object encountered and forms what is referred to as the echo signal.
It seems impossible to refer all these well-attested stories to imposition.出自： M. R. Mitford
- refer无论作不及物动词还是及物动词一般都须与介词to搭配。refer to表示“查阅,参考”“提到,提及”“对…而言,适用于”; refer...to则表示“把…提交给…”“把…归功于…”“把…称作…”。
- 在refer...to结构中, refer可接名词或代词作宾语,可用于被动结构。refer to还可接以as短语充当宾语补足语的复合宾语,意思是“把…称为”“认为…是…”。可用于被动结构。
refer to 意思为“提及”，“参考”等，不论是及物还是不及物，其后的介词to都不能省略。
She referred me to the dictionary.
She referred to the dictionary.
- refer, advert, allude
- allude指间接提到或略微一提; advert指漫不经心地提及; refer指直接、明确地提到。
- refer, ascribe, attribute, impute
- 1.attribute和ascribe既可用于积极意义,也可用于消极意义; 而impute则主要用于坏的方面,常表示“归罪于或嫁祸于…”。
- 3.attribute强调客观性; ascribe则表示主观臆断。
误 Who were you referring when you said some people were stupid?
正 Who were you referring to when you said some people were stupid?司令员提到了战争时期的经历。
误 The commander referred his experience during the war.
正 The commander referred to his experience during the war.委员会成员之间的纠纷都提交主席去解决。
误 The dispute between the committee members is referred the chairman.
正 The dispute between the committee members is referred to the chairman.
误 She never refers to others when she has difficulties.
正 She never refers herself to others when she has difficulties.
析 表示“求助于…”应说refer oneself to, refer用作及物动词,通常接oneself作宾语。他向我们打听消息。
误 He referred us for information.
正 He referred to us for information.
析 refer to sb for sth 意思是“为某事而向某人提及”,亦即“向某人询问或打听某事”,其中to不可缺少。
- ☆ 14世纪晚期进入英语，直接源自古法语的referer；最初源自拉丁语的referre，意为拿回，带回。