- Unlike specific labor, abstract labor is intangible and can't be measured.
- Capital and science and technological achievements, as value, are abstract labor, yet in coagulated form.
- Materialized labor is dead labor. Only living labor possesses the dual properties of labor, and involves the problem of abstract labor that creates va lue.
- Another mistake is that they think the abstract labor does not deny the utility of labor absolutely,they misunderstand Max' theory of dual nature of labor and some other theories.
他们另一个错误是 ,认为抽象劳动并不绝对否定劳动的效用。 他们误解了马克思的劳动二重性学说 ,以及马克思的一些论述
- The value of commodity has an attribute of cost . Abstract labor is in effect a lifespan spent in a specific labor, which constitutes the final cost in producing commodities.